The Congolese civil war is one of the oldest and most complex conflicts in African history. Independent Congo has undergone multiple phases of protracted conflict and hostility. While there are several scholarship studies on the causes of civil war, few analysts have examined why civil war persists
The new arrivals to Africa, colonial authorities, managed to create a new front for warfare and violence – and whose influence was not felt in its devastating entirety until many, many years later.
La constitution et l’expansion de ce mouvement réformiste musulman est l’un des faits les plus marquants dans l’Algérie de l’entre-deux-guerres, période durant laquelle se forme le mouvement nationaliste qui, à partir de 1954 entre en guerre contre la France pour obtenir l’indépendance de la colonie.
As Archbishop, Anselm could not wholly separate ecclesiastical and secular affairs. Eadmer reports that ‘Secular business was something he could not patiently abide, and he used every pretext to withdraw himself from it as far as he could.’ Yet this acknowledgement does not mean that he did not engage with it and the king when necessary.
Si il est délicat de parler de climat révolutionnaire pour désigner les années qui précèdent la Révolution française, la guerre des farines s’inscrit dans un contexte de flambée des troubles sociaux. Nicolas parle ainsi de « Grande Rébellion » pour qualifier les 8 500 émotions populaires qui ont lieu avant la Révolution. En quoi la guerre des farines montre que le peuple s’impose comme un acteur central du champ politique ?
After World War I, new forms of Islamic consciousness began to emerge in what would become one of the most impressive manifestations of Muslim unity to date. In a large range of Muslim countries, including Morocco, Egypt, Iraq and Algeria, activists began mobilize in response to external political threats, simultaneously functionalizing and politicizing Islam to lend support for the cause.
The people chose property owning democracy, over socialist democracy in the long run.
To what extent did the policies of the Brezhnev era begin the process of the collapse of the Soviet Union?
Portraits were designed to embody the virtues of the prince. But portraits were not just displayed, they were exchanged, worn to show loyalty, to remember family members, affirm bonds and relationships and were used in diplomacy to provide information or a gift. ‘Royal portraiture was an important genre in its own right.’ (Schama 1988)